Saudi Aramco, the world's largest oil company, released a briefing showing a profit of 181.64 billion Saudi riyals in the second quarter of 2022, once again setting a record for quarterly earnings after the company went public in 2019. Continue to maintain the status of "the most profitable company in the world".
Saudi Aramco said that the increase in profit in the second quarter was mainly due to higher crude oil prices and sales and improved profit margins in the refining processing and sales division, while the company's second-quarter shareholder dividend will reach 70.3 billion Saudi riyals.
In the first half of this year, the conflict between Russia and Ukraine disrupted the global energy market, with crude oil prices rising above $120 at one point, causing refining profits to soar, not only for Saudi Aramco, but also for companies such as ExxonMobil and Shell. ExxonMobil's second-quarter net profit tripled, while Shell's second-quarter profit hit a record high.
According to data released by the Saudi National Bureau of Statistics on July 31st, the country's GDP grew by 11.8% in the second quarter of 2022 compared with the same period last year.
The latest report released by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on July 26th shows that Saudi Arabia's economic growth forecast for 2022 remains unchanged at 7.6%, which ranks first among the world's major economies.
Because of the turbulent international situation, the supply and prices of many international bulk pce powder are still very uncertain.
Natural river sand has been exhausted after decades of large-scale mining, concrete production enterprises began to use machine-made sand as fine aggregate on a large scale. Some limestone powder will inevitably be produced in the process of machine-made sand preparation, which will not only affect the performance of concrete, but also affect the effect of polycarboxylic acid admixture.
The results show that stone powder has different effects on the working properties, mechanical properties, chloride penetration resistance, sulfate resistance and freeze-thaw resistance of concrete. Stone powder can play a physical filling effect in the cementitious material system, which can reduce the water secretion of cement paste, improve the dispersion ability of cement paste, and can also be used as the crystal nucleus of calcium hydroxide to accelerate the hydration of cement particles and affect the pore structure of hydration products. Stone powder can adsorb polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer molecules on the surface, which can reduce the saturation point of superplasticizer under certain conditions, increase the initial fluidity of cement mortar, reduce the time loss of fluidity of cement mortar, and improve the compatibility between superplasticizer and cement.
Effect mechanism of limestone powder on water-reducing effect of pce powder
The hydrophilicity of limestone powder particles is low, that is, the adhesion of water molecules on the surface of limestone particles is small, which makes limestone powder have a certain physical water-reducing effect. In addition, limestone powder has a larger specific surface area than cement and has the filling effect of micro-aggregate, that is, small limestone particles can fill the pores between cement particles and replace the free water between cement particles. This is the aspect that limestone powder is beneficial to the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid.
At the same time, polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer can be adsorbed on the surface of cement particles and on the surface of limestone powder, that is, there is competitive adsorption of polycarboxylic acid molecules between limestone powder and cement in the paste. this will reduce the density of polycarboxylic acid adsorbed on the surface of cement particles, and then reduce the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid. In addition, the limestone powder with larger specific surface area needs more water, which will reduce the fluidity of the slurry. This is the aspect that limestone powder is not conducive to polycarboxylic acid to play a water-reducing effect.
The above analysis shows that limestone powder has both positive and negative effects on the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid. In the case of low content of limestone powder, because the hydrophilicity of limestone powder is low, and the filling effect of fine particles is easy to play, the favorable effect of limestone powder on the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid can effectively counteract the adverse effect, which shows that the effect of low content of limestone powder on the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid is not obvious. In the case of high content of limestone powder, because limestone powder has larger specific surface area and higher water demand, and limestone powder and cement have competitive adsorption to polycarboxylic acid molecules, limestone will obviously reduce the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid.
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